Much attention is attracted by the project of towing icebergs from the Antarctic to arid areas, such as the Arabian Peninsula, which will annually provide fresh water from 4 to 6 billion people, or to irrigate approximately 80 million hectares of land.
One of the alternative methods of water supply is desalination of salt water, mainly oceanic, and transports it to places of consumption. It is technically feasible through the application of electrodialysis, freezing, and various systems of distillation. The larger the desalination plant is, the cheaper the cost of fresh water is gotten in outcome. But the increased cost of electricity desalination becomes uneconomical. It is used only in cases where the energy is readily available and other methods of obtaining freshwater inappropriate. Commercial desalination plants operate on the islands of Curacao and Aruba (the Caribbean), in Kuwait, Bahrain, Israel, Gibraltar, o.Gernsi and the United States.
The aforementioned methods of redistribution of runoff just allow to use existing resources in efficient way. Thus primary water resources are to be protected. There are two common ways to save water: preservation of existing stocks of usable water and conserve its resources by constructing more thorough collectors. Accumulation of water in reservoirs prevents its flow into the ocean where it can again be extracted only through the water cycle or by desalination. Reservoirs also facilitate the use of water at the right time. Water can be stored in underground cavities. In this case there is no loss of moisture through evaporation, and save valuable land. Conservation of existing water supplies contribute to the channels that do not allow water seepage into the ground and ensure its efficient transportation, more efficient methods of irrigation using waste water, reducing the volume of water flowing from the fields or filtered below the root zone of growing crops, careful use of water for household needs.
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